December 29, 2018



Sequence number:s3431
Date of letter:1992-06-22
Address of author:Anyi County, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province
Date of event:1941
Location of event:Anyi County, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province
Name of author:Zhang Zhenhua
Name(s) of victim(s):Common people in Anyi County

Type of atrocity:Others, Murders, Rapes(OT, MU, RA)
Other details:During the Anti-Japanese war period, the Japanese Army created 3 sensational tragedies in our area, with the number of people being killed by the Japanese Army reached over 200 persons. I sorted out their atrocities and now want to ask Mr. Tong, how I can demand compensation, and what other materials are needed, please inform me.

Comrade Tong Zeng,

  We’ve read the article Wave of Civil Compensation from Shanxi Daily of May 30, 1992 which reprinted the article from China Business, and learned that you are working on demanding civil compensation against the Japanese government for Chinese people who suffered during the Anti-Japanese war. We are deeply touched by your righteous act and would like to express gratitude to you and your colleagues on behalf of the victims in our city.

  In 1941 during the Anti-Japanese war, the Japanese army caused three appalling tragedies in Anyi of our city, where over 200 people were killed. Their family members have every reason to demand compensation against the Japanese government. Could you tell us about the process of the compensation campaign? What channels do we have to demand compensation against Japan? What procedures and materials are required? And whom (organizations and agencies) do we contact? We are eager to know the answers to all of these questions.

  Our work is related to the Party’s history and we are now sending materials. We’ve obtained through survey, about the tragic events that the Japanese army produced in our city for your reference.

  We haven’ contacted relevant family members about the issue of compensation. We’ll work on that after receiving your reply. Looking forward to your reply.

Best regards,
Yuncheng Communist Party History Research
Yuncheng Communist Party History Research (seal)
June 22, 1992

Address: Municipal Committee compound, Jiefang Road, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province
Postal code: 044000
Tel: 222407 Direct dial phone: 0359222407
Contact: Zhang Zhenhua

Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army in Shangduan Village, Yuncheng City

By Zhang Zhenhua

  Shangduan (originally subject to Anyi), Shangguo, Yuncheng, was located to the south of Jiwangshan and adjacent to Beipo, with Wanquan to its north, Yishi to its west, Wenxi to its east and Anyi and Yuncheng to its south. Shangduan was quite far from these counties, about 30 km on average. Jiwangshan was then an anti-Japanese base area in the Yuncheng Basin. As Shangduan was relatively far from the counties occupied by the Japanese army, and favorably located near Jiwangshan and Beipo, the No. 102 Regiment of the No. 100 Division was temporary established here and made up of Wang Xuelin Guerrillas under the leadership of the Communist Party, the Anyi People’s Anti-Japanese Guerrillas and the No. 38 Kuomintang Army. The No. 3 Battalion, led by Communist Party Member Liu Weicheng, the head of the No. 102 Regiment and the forces led by Communist Party Member Liu Xiaseng, the head of the No. 7 Company of No. 101 Regiment often carried out anti-Japanese activities near Shangduan.

  On the night of April 14 (lunar February 25), 1939, Shigeru FUJITA, head of the United Japanese Army stationed in Zhangliang, led 20 cavalry and over 100 infantry to detour to the north of Shangguo and surround it from north to south, attempting to eliminate the No. 102 Regiment of the No. 38 Army and part of the forces of the No. 101 Regiment that were stationed here. However, as the Kuomintang Army was informed in advance of the news, all of the Chinese forces had promptly evacuated Shangguo, shifted to Shangduan and Nanchen and were deployed to wipe out the Japanese army. Some of the soldiers disguised as villagers and hid in Shangduan. The Japanese army came here in vain, but learned that the anti-Japanese army had transferred to southwestern Shangguo, so they directly headed to Shangduan and Nanchen. As the anti-Japanese soldiers were well hidden, the Japanese army didn’t see them when they reached Shangduan and thought they had left. So, Shigeru FUJITA led the forces to leave from the west gate and head to Nanchen. As they approached the village entrance, they were cross-fired by the Chinese forces hidden in Shangduan and ambushed in Nanchen. The Japanese army fought hard while waiting for reinforcements from Yuncheng, Yishi and Wanquan that were informed by telegraph. The two sides fought fiercely for over three hours and just when the Japanese army was about to be wiped out, a large group of Japanese reinforcements arrived from Yuncheng, Yishi and Wanquan and rescued them. Five soldiers firmly held their position at Guofenglou, Nanchen, fought, from high above, with the Japanese army until 10 a.m. of April 15 and died a glorious death due to the lack of ammunition and reinforcements. This battle caused the death of nearly 100 Japanese soldiers. Their dead bodies were covered with sheets and carried away by horses and carts. It was impossible to count the accurate death toll. As for the No. 38 Army, apart from casualties, 14 soldiers were captured by the Japanese army who found from them cloth strips of “pass” bearing the seal of Shangduan Village.

  After losing the battle, the Japanese army shifted their anger to Shangduan villagers with the reason that Chinese soldiers carried with them cloth strips of “pass” bearing the seal of Shangduan Village. So they surrounded Shangduan after 10 a.m. of April 15, 1939. After entering the village, the Japanese army, under the order of Shigeru FUJITA, killed any Chinese they saw, men or women, old or young. They bayoneted the people before throwing them into a well in the village and even threw grenades into the well to make sure they were dead. With the gate of Houbao tightly closed, the Japanese soldiers found a ladder in the village and used it to cross the gate. Jia Xiaomo, who lived in Houbao, was tall and strong. He punched down the Japanese soldier who barged in his house and when he tried to seize his bayonet, another soldier came. The two soldiers tired to drag him to a well, but he fought hard with bare hands, so the soldiers bayoneted him to death in the alley. Chen Quanming, who lived in Zhongxiang, was also a strong young man. He fought bravely with the Japanese soldier who tried to drag him away, but was bayoneted and bled badly. Even when the solider dragged him by the well, he firmly grabbed one of the soldier’s legs, so the soldier bayoneted him to death and threw him into the well. In this way, the Japanese army shot or bayoneted 14 anti-Japanese soldiers and 94 common people dead and threw them into a well. The only survivor after being thrown into a well was the then 32-year-old woman Zhang Putao.

  Back at that time, Shanduan had 103 households and over 400 people. On that day alone, 94 people were killed by the Japanese army, accounting for 1/4 of the total population. Among the 94 people, 33 were over 50 years old, accounting for 1/3, and 9 were less than 10 years old, accounting for 1/10. The massacre tore 39 households apart and wiped out 7 families including Zhang Shuicheng’s family of 10 members. The then 32-year-old Zhang Putao’s family had 8 members and except her and her second daughter Duan Qiaoer who hid in the grinding mill, the other members, including her father-in-law Duan Jixian, mother-in-law Ma Nao, husband Duan Jindou, first daughter Duan Tanxiang (12-year-old), son Duan Zhimin (9-year-old) and husband’s young brother Duan Jinman hid in the cellar behind the house. Unfortunately, they were found by the Japanese soldiers, ordered to come out of the cellar one by one and thrown into a well. Only her 12-year-old first daughter Duan Tanxiang and 9-year-old son didn’t come out of the cellar and survived. Zhang Putao and her second daughter were also thrown into the well. Zhang Putao was the only survivor because she was the last one to be thrown into the well and the first one to be saved from it by other villagers after the Japanese army left. The man who saved Zhang Putao was Li Mancheng (from He’nan Province), a handyman of Duan Gongwa’s family. As the diameter of the well is very small, only one person could be saved at a time, so except Zhang Putao, the rest were either drowned or crushed to death. After Li Mancheng saved Zhang Putao and before he got out of the well, the Japanese army unexpectedly returned to the village to check whether there were some Japanese soldiers left behind. So other villages hid away and when they hurried to save Li Mancheng after the Japanese army left again, they found he had fallen into the well and died. There were a total of five wells in Houbao, Zhongxiang and Houxiang of Shangduan Village and victims’ bodies were found in all of them. In a well in Houbao alone, as many as 33 bodies were found. The Japanese army threw villagers and anti-Japanese soldiers into 4 wells and used the water in the last one to drink and feed horses. But before they left, they threw the two porters who had drew up water from the well to feed their horses into the well and threw nearly 100 grenades into it, blowing up the porters and well.

  In addition to the massacre, the Japanese army burned 87 residential houses and all wheat straws. Due to the Japanese army’s inhuman burning, killing, robbing and plundering, the alleys in Shangduan were littered with corpses, the families were torn apart, the people escaped as their lives were endangered because of the lack of water and loss of houses, and the fields desolated. It was a tragic sight inside and outside the village.

  Shigeru FUJITA, head of the United Japanese Army and responsible for Shangduan Massacre, was later promoted as lieutenant general for cruelly butchering Chinese people and was a war criminal. He was brought to justice and held in a prison for war criminals after China won the anti-Japanese war. From June 9 to 19, 1956, the special military tribunal of the Supreme People’s Court held a public trial, where Zhang Putao testified and described tearfully the process of how Shigeru FUJITA directed the Japanese army to carry out a massacre in Shangduan. Shigeru FUJITA had to confess, “Everything is true. I am willing to accept any punishment.” Lawyer Xu Ping defended him in the court and when the court asked Shigeru FUJITA to give a statement in the court debate, he said, “Now, I realized that the cruel war of aggression launched by Japan against China has not only committed horrible crimes to the Chinese people, but brought an unprecedented disaster to the Japanese people. Today, through the court that represents the will of 600 million Chinese people, I express my true repentance to the Chinese people, especially the victims and sincerely accept the judgment of the court.” Through judicial review, the court sentenced Shigeru FUJITA to 18 years in jail at 8:30 a.m. on June 19, 1956.

  (Attachments are February 6 Massacre in Shangduan by comrade Huo Zijiang from the Museum of Yuncheng, Two Massacres Committed by the Japanese army in Anyi by comrade Li Boyang, Atrocities Committed by the Japanese army in Shangduan, Anyi, Shanxi by comrades Zheng Dong and Wang Cunhou, At the Court of Justice by People’s Daily reporter Li Gao, a press release by Xinhua News Agency and a summary of materials I’ve obtained from interviews with relevant people in Shangduan.)

  A list of the victims is provided below:

Mrs. Jia, née Lv (female, 50) Jia Wenxue (male, 8)
Jia Yinzhe (male, 40) Mrs. Jia, née Ma (female, 36)
Wang Yingnan (male, 57) Mrs. Jia, née Gao (female, 59)
Dong Fengyi (male, 49) Zhang Guangming (male, 43)
Mrs. Dong, née Cui (female, 58) Shen Fuxiu (male, 50)
Hou Weiping (male, 39) Zhang Haoshou (male, 11)
Wang Huo (male, 39) Duan Jindou (male, 31)
Jia Yuyin (male, 52) Jia Lianke (male, 44)
Jia Zhuwa (male, 26) Dong Tuwang (male, 38)
Mrs. Zhang, née Jing (female, 53) Zhang Manman (male, 5)
Duan Lijia (male, 37) Dong Yongqing (male, 57)
Dong Dongwa (male, 37) Dong Fengchi (male, 47)
Zhou Mingwa (male, 36) Duan Jixian (male, 46)
Duan Hewa (female, 4) Jia Ganmin (female, 46)
Mrs. Jia, née Wang (female, 55) Wang Suiwa (male, 18)
Dong Haiyan (male, 33) Zhang Guangyao (male, 51)
Dong Zhenhe (male, 56) Jia Hongnian (male, 52)
Dong Shangui (male, 30) Dong Fuwa (male, 9)
Dong Fengyin (male, 42) Feng Yuwa (male, 27)
Mrs. Duan, née Jia (female, 48) Mrs. Jia, née Qin (female, 31)
Mrs. Jia, née Xue (female, 56) Wang Zhangtu (male, 21)
Duan Caigui (male, 54) Dong Hong (male, 39)
Dong Jianli (male, 64) Wang Jingwa (male, 10)
Shi Jinwang (male, 34) Jia Cuncun (male, 30)
Jia Mingzhe (male, 60) Jia Xiaomo (male, 31)
Jia Dingwa (male, 51) Jia Yuying (male, 63)
Dong Fengyuan (male, 61) Zhang Guanghui (male, 55)
Zhang Gaowa (male, 8) Mrs. Duan, née He (female, 15)
Dong Qinwa (female, 3) Dong Miwa (male, 41)
Dong Xuecheng (male, 37) Li Mancheng (male, 29)
Jia Wenbao (male, 43) Jia Gengshu (male, 29)
Jia Chenshan (male, 55) Mrs. Dong, née Fan (female, 56)
Mrs. Zhang (female, 49) Dong Liuwa (male, 16)
Jia Yangmeng (male, 62) Dong Kexiao (male, 3)
Zhang Zhongmao (male, 55) Dong Fengyu (male, 53)
Lao Yang (male, 42)

  In addition, the names of 5 male and 2 female victims from Huo’s family, 14 villagers and 14 anti-Japanese soldiers were unknown.

May 16, 1985

Inhuman Massacre
-Records of Gouxizhuang Massacre
By Li Genxing

  On July 31, 1941 (lunar June 8), the Japanese army carried out an inhuman massacre on the people in Gouxizhuang, Yuncheng City.

  Located at the foot of Bowang Mountain in the farthest south of Jiwangshan, Gou Xizhuang was a small village in Sanluli, Yuncheng with over 40 households. There was a high peak behind Bowang Mountain, commonly known as Yuntian Ridge, from which one could look down over surrounding villages. So, the Japanese army based in Sanluli Village stationed soldiers on Yuntian Ridge, where cannon were installed and used to bomb the anti-Japanese army that appeared in nearby villages from time to time. Thus, Yuntian Ridge became the lookout and frontier defense of the Japanese army. Nevertheless, the leaders of the anti-Japanese frequently appeared nearby.

  The Japanese soldiers stationed on Yuntian Ridge often came down by twos and threes to nearby villages within 3 or 5 li (1 li=500 meters) to freely rob villagers of their poultry and livestock and rape women. In June (lunar May) 1941, two armed Japanese soldiers, who were defeated by the anti-Japanese army, seized the opportunity to harass the villagers in Gouxizhuang and in Shengpan Village (also known as Wencunzhuang), Wanrong. Li Fusheng, deputy director of Gouxizhuang, gathered some furious villagers to chase them down. When they chased the two Japanese soldiers to a desolate ground between Gouxizhuang and Shengfan, villagers including Lei Tiemiao, a young man from Gouxizhuang, beat one Japanese soldier to death, while the other one escaped. After the incident, the villagers thought the Japanese army would seize the opportunity to massacre them and began to flee from the village. As expected, on the second day after the incident, the Japanese army took away 8 villagers from Gouxizhuang including Nan Guohua, Lei Gaosheng, Nan Hengshan, Lei Zhenfeng, Wang Quan, Li Yulu and Nan Jiamao and threatened to trample down Gouxizhuang and wipe out all villagers and livestock. The remaining minority of villagers were terrified by the threat and fled from the village, leaving hundred mu (1 mu is about 667 square meters) of fertile fields desolated. Seeing this, the head of the United Japanese army realized that this couldn’t help him destroy Gouxizhuang, so he used the trick of throwing a long line to catch big fish. First, he released all 8 people who were captured to the base of the Japanese army in Sanluli and sent out lies, “The Japanese soldier was already dead. That’s the end of it as long as no similar events happen again.” The release of the 8 people and promise of the head of the Japanese army convinced the farmers who fled from Gouxizhuang to other places, so they gradually returned to the village to continue farming.

  At the night of July 31 (lunar June 8), the Japanese army suddenly surrounded Gouxizhuang. At dawn, when the farmers got up and were ready to go farming, the Japanese army seized the opportunity to massacre them. After entering the village, the Japanese army first came across Ma Ju and his father who were pulling a cart to deliver dung to the fields and ordered them to lead the way. But they refused, so the Japanese soldiers bayoneted them to death on the spot. Afterwards, the Japanese soldiers searched for the villagers door by door and killed anyone they saw, men or women, old or young. Du Rumei’s then only 2-year-old younger brother Du Zemei was sleeping in the bed, but the Japanese soldiers didn’t even show mercy to him. They held his legs and smashed his head into stone, cruelly killing him. What’s more horrible was that a Japanese soldier stuffed a stick of 10cm long into the vagina of Bao Wa’s mother and stabbed her to death. According to the witnesses, the Japanese army didn’t easily shoot on that day partly because they didn’t want to alert the people and partly because they wanted to vent their hatred. They bayoneted kids to death and picked them up with the point of the bayonet for fun, or put the tied-up people under a stone mill and crushed them to death, or tied the people to a wood ladder and poured pepper water in their eyes, ears, nostril and mouths, or forced the people to eat cow dung. They bayoneted five people, including Lei Huwa, his wife and mother, Lei Changfa and his wife, in their bodies, put wheat straws on them and burned them alive. While they were streaming out of pain, the merciless Japanese soldiers laughed wildly and said this was called “lighting the lamp of heaven”.

  The people of Gouxizhuang were not intimidated by the massacre, some of them died a glorious death and some had a quick-thinking and escaped. Lei Tiemiao, who beat the Japanese soldier to death, showed no fear in front of a Japanese soldier armed with a bayonet and when the enemy tried to bayonet him, he firmly held the bayonet and refused to succumb even until the bayonet made two long cuts in his hands. In the end, the soldier shot him dead. Another Japanese soldier forced Lei Zhenfeng to jump into a well, but after a second thought, he ordered him to measure the depth of the water in the well by dropping down the rope into it in case the water level was not high enough to drown him. Lei Zhenfeng knew the water level was not high, but purposefully dropped down quite a length of rope to wet it. After being convinced that the water level was high, the solider pushed him into the well. After falling into the well, Lei Zhenfeng hid in it, survived and lives until today. When leading the way for the Japanese army, Zhu Xinwa purposefully made them get lost and seized the opportunity to escape. Later, he joined the guerrillas.

  The massacre committed by the Japanese army in Gouxizhuang is inhuman and horrible. In less than 5 hours during the Japanese army’s stay in the village, 74 innocent people (See the attached form for details), nearly 1/3 of the total population of Gouxizhuang, were killed. 34 households, 2/3 of the total households, lost their family members and fellowmen. Du Weiwa’s family had 6 members. Yet except Du Weiwa himself, his mother, wife and 3 children were all killed. The Japanese army reached their vicious goal of “trampling down Gouxizhuang and wiping out all villagers and livestock”. Following the massacre, the Japanese army sent 40 big carts to take away all grain and furniture, among other things, of each family and burned most of the temples and residential houses in the village.

  (Note: This article is based on the memory of Lei Zhenfeng, a survivor of the Gouxizhuang Massacre and comrades such as Du Miaojun, Du Rumei, Niu Yangfu, Li Huxing and Cheng Wukui, who were family members of the victims.)

  April 13, 1985

List of victims in the Gouxizhuang Massacre, Yucheng committed by the Japanese army (Form 1)


List of victims in the Gouxizhuang Massacre,Yuncheng committed by the Japanese army (Form 2)


Atrocities Committed by the Japanese Army in Niuzhuang

By Li Genxing

  During the early anti-Japanese war period, Niuzhuang, Shangwang, Yuncheng was one of the four districts in Xia County. With the development of the anti-Japanese war, the anti-Japanese democratic government of Jilu County was established in Niuzhuang in the winter of 1941 and the head of the county Zhao Yixuan set up the Jilu branch of the anti-Japanese democratic army in Niuzhuang in the same year. He served as the captain of the branch and comrade Lei Zhenlong from Niuzhuang as political instructor. Many farmers from Niuzhuang joined this anti-Japanese team. Captain Zhao often led them to appear near Jiwangshan and took the Japanese army by surprise. Thus, they were seen as a pain in the ass by the Japanese army. In 1941, XX KOSHIDA, the head of the Japanese army based in Xia County stationed SONO troops in Niuzhuang and Shangwang. Besides, the Japanese army built a fort at the highest place in Dongguan, Niuzhuang and a road from Bingchi, Wenxi to Niuzhuang. Meanwhile, the Japanese army developed a group of royal traitors to monitor and sabotage the activities of the guerrillas. The Japanese army also implemented the cruel Three Alls (kill all, burn all and loot all) policy in the anti-Japanese bases as an attempt to eliminate the guerrillas led by comrade Zhao Yixuan.

  On May 22 (lunar April 8), 1942, two traitors stole the Niuzhuang villagers of two packs of silver and other treasures by taking the opportunity of spying on anti-Japanese activities and temporarily hid them in the clove field in Niujiapo about 1 li (1 li = 500 meters) away from the village. When they were about to take them away, they were found by the Underground Party Branch Secretary Pei Junying and the Head of the Village Lv Kuiying. As they two looked suspicious, Pei Junying blocked their way and asked, “Where are you from? What’s in the packs?” Realizing they might in trouble, they muttered, “We are from Wanquan and bought some silver.” Pei Junying opened the packs and saw some silver of his family, which confirmed his guess that they two were not good people. He said to Lv Kuiying, “They lied. Take them away!” Hearing this, the two traitors immediately ran away. Pei Junying knew the risks of letting them go, so he and Lv Kuiying chased them behind. When the traitors ran to Niujiagou, one of them was held back by 3 or 4 people working in the field. The other escaped towards Shangwang. Then, the traitor who was arrested was handed over to the government of Jilu, but halfway there, the cunning man escaped when the man escorting him was not paying attention and was not chased down due to the winding mountain roads. As expected, the traitor who first escaped reported to the leader of the Japanese army stationed in Shangwang, “The Eighth Route Army in Niuzhuang killed one of my brothers.” The leader immediately informed the Japanese army stationed in Niuzhuang to strengthen alert. The next day, the Japanese army laid violent hands on the innocent people in Niuzhuang.

  At dawn of May 23 (lunar April 9), 1942, shortly after the Japanese army stationed in Niuzhuang surrounded the village, a traitor shouted while beating a gong, “Each family sends a person to demolish the Temple of Goddess. The Japanese army needs firewood.” The kind villagers were unaware of their conspiracy, so 23 villagers went to the Temple of Goddess. However, once they got there, they were tied up by the Japanese army, connected with a rope and sent to Dongguan, Niuzhuang where the Japanese army was stationed. The farmers who were reaping barley in the fields were also captured and escorted to Dongguan.

  An air of horror loomed over the large ground in Guangguan where the Japanese army was stationed. The ground was surrounded by sentries armed with bayonets and machine guns were installed on the top of the walls, all pointing at the over 60 people standing in the center of the ground. A bloody massacre was about to happen. In a while, XX SONO, the head of the Japanese army, stood in front of the people and shouted hysterically, “You people in Niuzhuang are as bad as the Eighth Route Army. You will all die!” With that, he winked at a traitor standing beside him and the traitor knowingly looked across the people before walking towards them. Then, he stared at someone and pushed him out. In the end, he pushed out 5 people in total. The Japanese soldiers escorted the 5 people before 5 holes dug beforehand and blindfolded them with white cloth. The 5 people were among those who captured the traitors, including Underground Party Branch Secretary Pei Junying and the enlightened gentry Pei Changsheng. Knowing that the enemy were about to kill them, they verbally abused the traitors and Japanese army. Pei Changsheng resisted fiercely and even spit at the traitor. A Japanese soldier became furious and cut off his head as a warning. The other 4 people were all bayoneted to death and pushed into the holes.

  Watching their fellowmen being killed, the other people became vengeful. Communist Party Member Pei Xiaochao clenched his fists and shouted, “We will die anyway. Let’s fight!” Encouraged by his words, the people began to advance towards the armed Japanese soldiers. Right at that moment, the Japanese army stationed in Shangwang arrived. Seeing that a fight was about to take place, the head of the arriving Japanese army wielded his sword and ordered, “The people in Niuzhuang are so evil. Kill them all!” The Japanese soldiers drove 58 male villagers, including Pei Laixi (party member), Pei Xiaochao (party member), Lv Guanhai (party member), Cheng Jinshuan (party member), Pei Chaowa (party member), Zhou Baocai (party member), Pei Tianfa (party member), Lv Xiaochao, Lv Erwa, Pei Heyin, Pei Zhenwu, Pei Jintai, Cheng Bingyin, Wang Deshan, Wang Xian (Wang Deshan’s son), Pei Ziyou, Pei Yanzhang, Pei Heiwa (Pei Yanzhang’s son), Pei Fengyi, Zhou Fanwa, Pei Caiwa, Pei Qihui, Mai Huiwa, Lv Qishen, Cheng Shouwa, Jia Changfa, Pei Mingzhi, Zhang Qunwa, Zhang Hewa (Zhang Qunwa’s son), Jia Qinxiao, Jia Qinlian, Jia Qinsheng, Jia Degong, Cheng Youfu, Cheng Haiming, Lv Qishan (a student in the fourth grade), Jia Danwa, Lv Fanzhou, Lv Shaozhou, Lv Shaowu, Lv Changyin, Lv Zhaofu, Lv Genxi, Lv Shenghui, Lv Yaoxiang, Pei Zhongxing, Pei Heen, Fan Shen (teacher), Du Yuan, Lv Genxin, Pei Chengli, Jia Xizhi, Lv Wenlin (only person of his family), Cheng Guanhai, Pei Dawa, Zhang Shihe and Wen Junhuo, to a large pit, stunned or hit them dead with sticks, or bayoneted them to death and then pushed all of them into the pit, which was as deep as the height of a person and had an area of over 10 square Zhang (1 Zhang is about 3.3 meters). The pit was almost fully stuffed with the bodies of the 58 people. In the end, in case they were not dead, the Japanese soldiers filled the pit with much soil.

  After the massacre, the Japanese army stationed in Niuzuang left the village for fear of being attacked by the Guerrillas of Jilu County. Sadly, from lunar April 9, it rained for 7 consecutive days, preventing the villagers who hid in other villages from returning to bury their fellowmen. 7 days later, they hurried back, but found dozens of bodies in the pit had rotten and couldn’t recognize them at all. In the end, they could only recognize the corpse by their clothes. Just when the villagers were claiming the corpses, the Japanese army returned, so the terrified villagers hid away. At that time, the corpses dug out from the pit were scattered over the ground in Dongguan and some of their arms or legs were eaten by wild dogs due to the lack of care. It was too horrible to see.

  After the massacre on Lunar April 9, the remaining villagers in Niuzhuang were haunted with fear, so a majority of them went and hid in their relatives’ houses and some even dug a cave under a high cliff about 1 or 2 li(1 li = 500 meters) away from the village to live a primitive life. In late lunar April when the mature wheat plants were ready to be harvested, the villagers of Niuzhuang were still hiding outside and could hardly be seen in the large, empty village. XX SONO, head of the Japanese army stationed in Xia county, had a premonition that there would be a problem with their collection of grain, so he contacted the Maintenance Association to call back all villagers. One day, the villagers from Niuzhuang were gathered in the yard of the Village Office and listened to the speech by XX SONO. He hypocritically said, “The people we killed were all Chinese soldiers. The people of Niuzhuang are good. Go home and reap the wheat!” Then, he ordered that the wheat couldn’t be threshed outside the village in case the people of Niuzhuang sent the wheat to the anti-Japanese Guerrillas of Jilu. As it turned out, before the people of Niuzhuang threshed all wheat, the Japanese army sent 40 large carts from other villages and took away all grain that had been threshed.

  The Japanese imperialism carried out a “security strengthening campaign” to colonize the occupied areas and isolate them from anti-Japanese bases. The Japanese army committed all kinds of crimes including burning, killing, robbing and raping, in Niuzhuang. They set 8 or 9 fires in Niuzhuang, including 3 big fires. The gravest one happened on lunar December 5, 1941 (calendar February 1, 1942), in which except 5 households, the remaining 115 households were all burned down. A total of over 300 houses including 9 theatre stages, 6 big temples, 9 small temples, 4 ancestral halls were destroyed. Thus, Niuzhuang, then known as “small Beijing”, became ruins.

  The Japanese imperialism committed heinous crimes in Niuzhuang by killing over 90 innocent people. On lunar April 9, 1942 alone, 63 people were massacred, including 8 underground party members. As only one party member survived, the underground party in Niuzhuang was seriously damaged. In addition, the Japanese army burned over 1,200 houses, plundered over 400 livestock, burned or plundered over 800,000 kilograms of grain and other immeasurable property, causing a rare disaster in the history of Niuzhuang. However, the people of Niuzhuang who have a revolutionary tradition were not intimidated by the enemy’s burning, killing and plundering. After the April 9 massacre in 1942, another 18 people from Niuzhuang joined the anti-Japanese Guerrillas of Jilu. The enemy didn’t eliminate the Guerrillas of Jilu led by comrade Zhao Yixuan, but made them stronger. In the anti-raid campaign, they strongly supported the military attacks of our principle forces by building roads, cutting electric lines, removing traitors and bombing forts, and undermined the enemy’s security strengthening campaign and conspiracy of creating a no man’s land by carrying out the cruel Three Alls policy. Through bloody battles, our anti-Japanese army and people finally defeated the Japanese imperialism and won the great victory of the anti-Japanese war.

  (Note: This article is based on the interviews with insiders such as Lv Shengyong, who was victimized by the Japanese army and survived, Lv Kuiying, the head of the village who arrested traitors, comrade Lei Ruming, village Party branch secretary of Niuzhuang and the son of Lei Zhenlong who was the political instructor of the Jilu branch of the anti-Japanese army.)

April 30, 1985

Atrocities Committed by the Japanese army in Daijiayao Village, Xie County

By Li Wangyan

  In 1942, to cross the Yellow River, the Japanese army invaded He’nan and began to build the Xie-Mo road from Xie to Ruipo. At that time, the Japanese army’s command post was stationed in Daijiayao, over 20 li (1 li = 500 meters) away from Xie. Daijiayao, which consisted of Duntailing, Xiegounan, Laoyaotou, Yuejiajiao, Shuiquanwa, Hongchanggou, Liujiapo, Tanjiayao and Qianling, had over 20 households and a population of over 130. The tasks assigned to the village included entertaining the Japanese soldiers supervising the construction work, sending people every day to stand guard for the Japanese soldiers, fetching water from a valley over 2 li (1 li = 500 meters) away, washing their clothes and chopping firewood. After entering the village, the Japanese soldiers arrested people, set fire, plundered and raped women. They threw the people’s food on the ground to feed their horses, smashed their furniture to be used as firewood and set fire to wheat straws. Moreover, they captured and raped women. A woman surnamed X didn’t have enough time to run away, so she was captured and raped by a Japanese soldier and forced to die. In this small village alone, over 20 people were killed and 20 or 30 women were raped.

  There was a family surnamed Ma in Shuiquanwa. After knowing the Japanese were coming, the family members fled and hid away. Only an old man aged 60 or 70 remained due to inconvenience. Later, the Japanese soldiers came and intended to occupy his house, so they pushed him down into a valley. Thus, the old man was fallen to death. There was one time when the supervising Japanese soldiers heard there were Chinese soldiers in Laoyaotou, they carried out a search and killed Yang Maocai with an axe. Dai Yuwa and Ma Mianwa were beaten to death by the Japanese soldiers on their way back home from the field. There was a man called Yang Waixing in Laoyaotou, who made a living by small trading. One time, he brought back some cigarettes from Xie and planned to sell them in Ruicheng. Unfortunately, the Japanese soldiers found the cigarettes during a search and claimed that he was sending stuff to Chinese soldiers. He was called out from his house and killed in Ershililing. His family members couldn’t even find his head when trying to collect his corpse. The father of Du Zhiwa from Shuiquanwa was shot dead by a Japanese soldier under a kernel tree near the Temple of the Land on his way back home from Daijiayao. His family members searched all places for him and when they finally found him, his body had rotten. In addition, the Japanese soldiers used the people as a target for shooting. Yang Dawa from Laoyaotou was then a kid of less than 10 years old. One day, when he was driving sheep on a hill, a supervising Japanese soldier aimed at him and shot him in one leg. Thus, he became a cripple. To control the people’s movement outside the village, the Japanese soldiers set up a checkpoint in Ershililing, which was the only path across the mountain. At the checkpoint, they would freely search and insult the people by ordering them to fetch water from Xundi, over 2 li (1 li = 500 meters) away, or to wrestle with each other or to crawl on the ground like a turtle to entertain them. If they felt slightly unhappy, they would insult or beat the people. Even those people who washed clothes and did the chores for the Japanese soldiers were bullied by them. Dai Mantun, Du Shengwa and Dai Heiwa from Daijiayao were sent to wash clothes for the supervising Japanese soldiers. A leader of the soldiers nicknamed “Black Back” wanted to have some fun on the way. So he chose a person at a time and fell him on the ground for three consecutive times by holding his arms. Then, the Chinese man must get up and was escorted to the valley to wash clothes. At that time, it was scorching summer. Du Shengwa was sick for malaria, but Black Back blamed him for not working hard, grabbed his hair and ear, and ordered him to kneel in the sun and shout “slave labors”. The slave labors building a road on the mountain heard the shout and began to run down. But when they went halfway, the solider ordered Du Shengwa to shout “stop”. This happened many times for the whole noon. When they were about to return to the village, Black Back ordered the three slave labors to stand in a row, with the one in the back pulling at the shirt of the one in the front. Black Back walked behind them. When they returned to the village, Dai Heiwa’s shirt was badly torn. Black Back threatened, “I will kill anyone who tells others about what happened today.”

  There was one time when the soldiers stationed in Eershililing captured and interrogated people with the excuse of losing their flour, salt and cigarettes (Dama Dog). They first captured the soldiers of the Puppet County Government in Ruicheng, who confessed after interrogation that the people from Daijiayao stole these things and sold them to them. This led to the suffering of the people in Daijiayao. The Japanese soldiers tied up Dai Mantun, the then head of the village and hung him on a ladder with his head down. Then, they interrogated him by pointing the bayonet at his heart, stamping on his heart with leather shoes and pouring cool water at his face. They even searched his house, but couldn’t find any evidence. At that moment, 30 or 40 villagers knelt down to plead mercy for him. That’s how he survived. Then, the Japanese soldiers began to interrogate Zhao Guaiwa, the former head of the village and tortured him in front of the whole village. What’s more hateful, they forced all villagers to form a circle. Then, a Japanese soldier peed towards the villagers with his urine splashing at their faces and bodies. Before leaving, the Japanese soldiers captured Zhao Guaiwa’s mother and wife and didn’t release them until days later. The pictures of what happened over 40 years ago make the living feel hatred and shame. Indeed, “the people of a conquered country are worse than a dog without a home.”

Sketches of the Shangduan Massacre


Zhang Putao, only survivor from being thrown into a well by the Japanese army during the Shangduan Massacre
Photo by Huo Zijiang


One of the five wells in which the Japanese army threw the people during the Shangduan Massacre
Photo by Huo Zijiang


Coverage by People’s Daily about a military trial of Shigeru FUJITA responsible for the Shangduan Massacre
Photo by Huo Zijiang

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Murders(MU), Others(OT), Rapes(RA)
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